That year, Agosa moved his Chippewa band from Bowers Harbor to what is today Old Mission to be closer to the mission and school, while Chief Aischoguagonabe moved his Chippewa band from the Elk Rapids area for the same reason. Odawas from Little Traverse Bay also settled on the peninsula in 1840 because they wanted their children to learn English, Tanner said.
From 1849 to 1852, many American Indians moved to the Leelanau Peninsula, which became an American Indian preserve in the Treaty of 1855. Waukazooville was founded in 1849 by Chief Waukazoo and his Black River Band of Ottawa, who had followed Congregationalist minister George Smith to the Northport area to escape incursions by Dutch settlers into their traditional lands near Holland.
Agosa moved his band to just north of Omena in 1852, the same year Chief Peshawbe moved his Ottawa band from Cross Village to Eagletown, now Peshawbestown. Dougherty followed in 1853 to start New Mission in Omena.
Four other American Indian villages that early surveyors noted along Leelanau Peninsula's western shore including Onomoneese, a village created about 1860 by American Indians escaping strife among Chippewa in northern Wisconsin, Tanner said.
The seven settler "toeholds" by 1850 were what became Leland, Frankfort, Northport, Elk Rapids, Traverse City, Glen Arbor and Benzonia, the only inland village, which originally was settled by Congregationalist educators from Oberlin College.
Historical information is included with the map.